Component 3: Healthcare and social responses for tackling drug use in the region are increased, by promoting social awareness on drugs further.
In Component 3 three types of the projects were developed. The first project used a universal prevention approach. The second project is based on the indicative prevention approach. The third ones concerns quality standards in prevention. All projects projects utilize science-based approaches to preventive intervention including theories and empirical knowledge on protective and risk factors of youth psychoactive substance use.
The universal prevention project/programme entitled “Closer to each other – further from risky behaviour” addressed to parents of school children was implemented effectively in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Materials for trainers, instructors and parents were translated into Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tajik and Uzbek languages (also Russian version of the programme is available). Materials consist of guidelines for trainers, guidelines for teachers/instructors, handouts and flyers for parents.
In Kazakhstan the pilot project “Closer each other- further from risky behaviour” was implemented in CADAP 6 as a pilot project in 20 schools in four localities: Kokshetau, Shymkent, Karaganda and Aktobe. In total, 230 teachers were trained to use this programme and about 4000 parents benefited from this programme.
In Kyrgyzstan the pilot project was implemented in 57 schools in four localities: Kyzyl-Kiya, Kadamjay district, Tokmok, and Chuy district. In total, 65 instructors were prepared to train teachers and 750 teachers participated in the training. It is estimated that about 11 000 parents participated in the programme “Closer to each other – further from risky behaviour”.
Moreover the programme “Closer each other-further from drugs” was also implemented in the framework of CADAP 6- Extension in Batken Oblast. It was possible due to the interest of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Kyrgyz Republic and financial support of ,,educational programme” implemented by EUD in Kyrgyzstan. All together in Batken Obalst almost 800 teachers from 158 schools were trained to be ready to implement the programme. Teachers were trained by Kirgiz trainers prepared by EE. Programme will cover about 27 000 – 30 000 parents. Evaluation study will be finalized after the completion of the implementation of the programme.
In Tajikistan the pilot project was implemented in 36 schools in 6 localities: Dushanbe, Kulyab, Tursunzade, Khorog, Khujand and Yavan district. In total, 36 instructors were prepared to train teachers and 513 teachers participated in the training. Estimated number of parents who took part in the programme is 13000.
In total, in these three countries mentioned above the programme was implemented in 271 schools, with active participation of 100 instructors, 2 200 teachers and about 58 000 parents.
In Uzbekistan, the concept of the programme addressed to parents ,”Closer to each other - further from risky behaviour” was implemented in two Mahallas: in the Syrdarya Province (Gulistan) and Tashkent Province (Youngiul). The programme was adapted to Mahalla needs and capacities. The programme was implemented by members of Mahalla responsible for youth and family in school setting or Mahalla premises. Training on what works in prevention was provided and the issue of how to implement the programme was elaborated. All together 40 instructors were prepared. The programme covered about 780 parents of school children.
Results of evaluation study of the programme “Closer each other-further from risky behaviour” (or further from drugs – it depends on the country) conducted in KG, KZ, TJ according to “gold” standard (pre-test and post-test with control group) was completed. Data were collected in all three countries have shown that the programme is applicable in the CA cultural context. Results of surveys (pre-test and post-test) among parents showed also positive outcome of the programme.
Moreover qualitative evaluation shown that more than 90% of parents were very satisfied with the participation in this programme “Closer to each other-further from risky behaviour/ drugs”. They assessed that programme was useful and beneficial for them. More than 90% of parents said that they would recommend this programme to other parents.
Programme of indicative prevention was addressed to youth at risk aged 14-25 years. The project was effectively developed and implemented in chosen educational or health care institutions in Kazakhstan (Astana, Kyzylorda), Kyrgyzstan (Bishkek), Tajikistan (Dushanbe) and Turkmenistan (Ashgabat).
In Kazakhstan the programme was preliminary (in CADAP 6) implemented in three Health Youth Centres in Astana by trained psychologists. More than 120 young people at risk completed the program. In the framework of CADAP 6-Extension, 24 psychologist from all Youth Health Centres in Astana were trained to implement the programme in the whole city. Planned number of participants is about 100 youth. Programme addressed to youth at risk is also implemented in Kyzylorda in all Youth Health Centres. 24 psychologists were trained to implement the programme. It is planned that about 100 - 150 youth will be covered by this programme by the end of March 2019.
In Kyrgyzstan program for students at risk was implemented by trained social pedagogues in four Bishkek schools with support of Bishkek school authorities. 63 students were identified and completed the program (CADAP 6). Further implementation of the programme is going on in the framework of CADAP 6- Extension. Next 10 schools are involved in the implementation of the programme and it is planned that about 100 youth will benefit from the programme.
In Tajikistan program for students at risk was implemented by three WG members in a few Dushanbe schools. 43 students were identified and completed the program. The implementation of this programme in Tajikistan (Dushanbe) met some problems due to the lack of mechanisms of referral for youth at risk to appropriate institutions. Nevertheless, the relevant steps were undertaken in order to overcome identified difficulties (CADAP 6). In CADAP 6- Extension, program is implemented in a wider scope. It is planned that about 100-150 pupils will be covered by the programme. Moreover the whole programme with ready scenario for further replication was translated into Tajik language.
In Turkmenistan program for young adults aged 18-25 years was implemented in Ashgabat in drop-in-centres. 40 people were recruited by the street workers. 30 men completed the full program (CADAP 6). Programme was implemented in the framework of CADAP 6-Extension and next 50 people benefited from the programme.
In Uzbekistan a pilot project (POSIT) has been developed as a screening test to identify youth at risk (not as a direct intervention procedure like in other countries). To validate the test to Uzbek cultural context, relevant data were collected. In three areas of interests (substance use, mental health and antisocial behaviour) the partial results showed promising validity of the test in terms of distributions of answers and internal consistency. In other two areas of interests (physical health and peer relationships) the results indicated the required distributions of answers, but low internal consistency. To complete the analysis additional efforts have been made to get data from the relevant control group of young people with “clinical” symptoms of problems.
Quality standards in prevention
Trainings on the quality standards in prevention were conducted in KG, KZ, UZ. All together about 60 experts were trained. In Tajikistan trainings will be implemented in March 2019 and in Turkmenistan in the end of February of 2019. It is worth mentioning that in UZ quality standards in prevention will be adjusted to national need and a special documents will be elaborated by national experts. In KZ there was conducted additional seminar on quality standards in prevention conducted by Kazakh experts.